|Awardee: Prof. Paul Linford Richards
Department of Physics
University of California - BERKELEY - USA
For his fundamental contributions to the measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), and in particular:
- the continuous development cryogenic bolometers, a contribution span over several decades, providing the cosmology community with large arrays of ultra-sensitive detectors for the CMB;
- the development of cryogenic Fourier Transform Spectrometers for the CMB, flown on stratospheric balloons and rockets in the 80s-90s, providing evidence of the thermal nature of the CMB;
- the measurement of the anisotropy of the CMB with the MAXIMA experiment that, along with the BOOMERanG experiment, first established that the geometry of the universe is flat (Euclidean). These experiments provided the first high fidelity images of the last scattering surface in the early universe, and demonstrated the existence of oscillations in the primeval baryon-photons plasma.
|Awardee: Prof. Herbert Spohn
Zentrum Mathematik - TU MÜNCHEN Deutschland
For realizing the applicability of widely different methods of Mathematical Physics and Analysis to the solutions of open problems establishing an unprecedented standard of mathematical precision in applications of Mathematics to Physics, with particular mention of his exact solutions on :
- the theory of roughening of surfaces,
- growth models and
- nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics.