
Awardee : Prof. Edward
Lorenz
Professor Emeritus at the Department of Earth,
Atmosferic, and Planetary Sciences
Massachussets Institute of Technology
Motivation:
For his discovery, careful study, and realization of the importance of the "butterfly
effect", namely, the sensitivity on the whole range of scales of the solutions
of nonlinear equations to an initial small scale perturbation. Edward Lorenz's
research on the predictability of physical systems, namely atmospheric models,
can be traced back to the publication in 1963 of his paper
"Deterministic nonperiodic flow" in the Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, which
marked the beginning of the new field of chaos theory and complex system dynamics.
The paper gave rise to a new paradigm in physics and to significant changes in
many other fields like medicine, geology, economics, etc, by demonstrating that
certain classes of deterministic systems are formally equivalent to unpredictable
systems. The application of Lorenz’s work to weather modeling led lately
to a relevant improvement in the weather forecast through what is known as ‘ensemble” forecast. 

Awardee: Prof. Gerald
Gabrielse
George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics, Harvard University
Motivation:
For the measurement of the gfactor of the electron to an accuracy of 2.8 x 1013
and for low energy antimatter physics, which included sensitive probes of the
baryon/antibaryon asymetry and whose pioneering methods opened the way to antihydrogen
production and future spectroscopy.
In particular, his measurement of the dimensionless electron magnetic moment,
the electron gvalue, is 15 times more accurate than the measurement performed
by Hans Dehmelt twenty years earlier. Such precision opens the way to QED tests
of unprecedented accuracy and allows the testing of possible finite size and
composite structure of the electron, not yet detected. In addition, Gerald Gabrielse
was the first to propose the use of lowenergy antiprotons and methods to produce
cold antihydrogen atoms that could be trapped for spectroscopic analyses. In
2002, two teams (one led by Gabrielse) produced antihydrogen during the positron
cooling of antiprotons within a nested Penning trap – a method and device
that Gabrielse had invented. 
